From the earliest traces of first arrivals to the present, the Native peoples of North America represent a diverse and colorful array of cultures. From Central America to Canada, from recent archaeological discoveries to accounts of current controversies, this comprehensive study uses both traditional story telling and a powerful narrative to bring history to life. Johansen provides a critical narrative of European-American westward expansion through use of Native American voices, including compelling personal sketches of key figures such as: Tecumseh, alliance builder in the Ohio Valley; Chief Joseph the Younger, leader of the Nez Perce "long march"; and Susette LaFlesche, an Omaha Indian who reported on the Wounded Knee massacre for the Omaha-Herald. This account provides an uncommonly rich description of the material and intellectual ways in which Native American cultures have influenced the life and institutions of people across the globe, from medicine such as aspirin to foods like corn and squash to democratic ideas. It utilizes portrayals of select incidents, such as the Wounded Knee massacre and the impact of small pox, to reveal deep layers of meaning about the frontier experience in American history. A wide array of contemporary controversies, such as gambling interests, sports mascots, and sovereignty issues, are also included.
Action is conceived of as an intentional behavior of an individual or of an institutional subject; it is determined by information processing, namely by a process in which pieces of descriptive and practical information are involved. Action is explained by a formal and finalistic theory which is connected with a specific theory of institutions. The philosophical basis of the logic of norm sentences and of other systems of practical thinking (formal teleology, axiology, logic of preferences) is discussed. The author criticizes traditional deontic logic and argues in favor of a genuine logic of norms. The book gives a structure analysis of the so-called practical inference and of nomic causal propositions. Besides a critical account of von Wright's practical philosophy the author offers critical analyses of discourse rationality (Habermas, Apel, Alexy) and of Wittgenstein's views on philosophizing.
The removal of polar and ionizable organic contaminants is an emerging concern in the production of safe drinking water. Activated carbon adsorption is one treatment strategy to remove such contaminants, but high carbon usage rates may be required to meet treatment goals. Recently published data showing that high-silica zeolites and carbonaceous resins exhibit higher MTBE adsorption capacities than activated carbons served as a motivation for a systematic evaluation of alternative adsorbents in this study.