This book shows that Holocene human ecosystems are complex adaptive systems in which humans interacted with their environment in a nested series of spatial and temporal scales. Using panarchy theory, it integrates paleoecological and archaeological research from the Eastern Woodlands of North America providing a paradigm to help resolve long-standing disagreements between ecologists and archaeologists about the importance of prehistoric Native Americans as agents for ecological change. The authors present the concept of a panarchy of complex adaptive cycles as applied to the development of increasingly complex human ecosystems through time. They explore examples of ecological interactions at the level of gene, population, community, landscape and regional hierarchical scales, emphasizing the ecological pattern and process involving the development of human ecosystems. Finally, they offer a perspective on the implications of the legacy of Native Americans as agents of change for conservation and ecological restoration efforts today.
This book is designed to give parents and teachers information on different education options available in the UK and further afield. It covers four main areas:
The values, philosophies and methods of each approach are described, along with first-hand experiences of children, teachers and parents. There are answers to common questions and useful sources of further information.
This accessible and informative book challenges the dominant educational orthodoxies by putting children first. It will be of interest to teachers looking to build on their knowledge of different educational approaches in order to find new ways of working. It is also an ideal introduction for parents deciding how best to educate their children.