This book is the first comprehensive documentation and interpretation of modern neritic carbonate sediments on the southern Australian continental margin, the largest cool-water carbonate depositional system on the globe. The approach is classical but the information is new. A brief chapter of introduction is followed by a section that describes the setting of the continental margin in terms of the regional geology, its evolution through time, the climate, and the complex oceanography. The setting is further explored in chapter 3 that outlines the Pleistocene history of sedimentation in this region. This is particularly important since many of the surficial sediments have a partial older history. The following section on the carbonate factory describes in detail the nature of the animals and plants that determine the nature of the sediments and the environmental conditions that control their distribution. The shelf itself cannot be discussed in isolation and thus a short chapter on the marginal marine environment is presented. The core of the book comprises two chapters that document the suite of depositional facies and their composition and then the suite of depositional environments where these sediments are found. The variety of deposits in this vast area is such that three chapters are devoted to the character of the materials on the southwestern shelf the south Australian sea and the southeastern shelf. The diagenesis that affects these sediments is tackled in a chapter after all the attributes are documented because they are intimately linked to different controls. The book finishes with a summary chapter that also addresses the various controls on sedimentation and models the effects to be expected when these are changed outside those present in the current realm.
Audience: The book is an invaluable source of information about this vast region and will be a critical reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals engaged in marine and environmental research. It will be of particular importance for geologists interpreting the ancient rock record.
The studies in the Ogawa Forest Reserve (OPR) were initiated by a group of plant ecologists and gradually expanded into a comprehensive project covering various aspects of biology, soil science, and silviculture. The project was integrated as part of the Forest Ecosystem Team under the BIO-COSMOS Program funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. As the coordinators of the Forest Ecosystem Team, we are pleased that reports of the long-term studies carried out in the OFR are being published in this first volume on Japanese ecosystems in the Ecological Studies series. Scientists and researchers have made numerous contributions to the field of forest ecology during more than 10 years of studies in the OFR. Two reasons can be cited for the success of the project: scientists from various disciplines concenÂ trated on a single target forest ecosystem, and the research continued over a relaÂ tively long term. It is now recognized that ecological processes include compliÂ cated mechanisms supported by interactions among organisms and large temporal variations. The researchers in the OFR project were motivated by their interest in the history of ecosystems and the interactions of diverse creatures in the forest.
Boreal and temperate tree species are adapted to the seasonally varying climatic conditions with their annual cycle of development so that the frost hardy dormant phase and the susceptible growth phase are synchronized with the seasonality of the climate. The annual cycle includes various attributes such as timing of bud burst and other phenological events, and seasonality of photosynthetic capacity or frost hardiness of the trees. During the last few decades dynamic ecophysiological models have been used increasingly in studies of the annual cycle, especially when projecting the ecological effects of climate change. These studies are reviewed and some additional new ideas on the topic are also introduced. A unifying notation is used throughout the book when discussing different aspects of the annual cycle. Main emphasis is on combining modelling with experimental studies and on the importance of the biological realism of the models